This morning, "Good Morning America" profiled a survivor of "orthorexia." Can you really be too obsessed with eating right?
Maggie Baumann, MA: Most of us have heard the terms associated with the more common types of eating disorders, such as "anorexia," "bulimia" and "binge-eating disorder."
However, there are other identified disorders that focus on food -- and one of them is called "orthorexia nervosa" -- a term coined by Steven Bratman, MD, in 1997. Bratman described this condition as a "fixation on righteous eating." The term is derived from the Greek word "ortho," which means "correct or right."
Obsessive-Compulsive Driven Disorder
Someone with orthorexia (males and females are equally affected) has taken the obsession with healthy eating to the extreme. Eating foods that are considered "pure" is the motivation of these specific eaters. Certain food groups are often avoided, such as fats, any foods made with preservatives, animal products or any other food considered to be "unhealthy."
Raw foodists and vegans are more likely to become orthorexic. People who have a past history of an eating disorder are also at a higher risk.
Eating healthy is something good for all of us to strive for. It's when eating extremely healthy interferes with a balanced lifestyle -- and you find yourself socially isolating because you fear eating "unacceptable" foods made by others -- that it becomes a problem. Relationships can become impaired and the disorder can negatively affect your whole life.
People who struggle with orthorexia often state that their foods and eating patterns become very ritualistic. For some, it takes days to prepare a meal from homegrown organic products. Others obsessively catalog every food they eat. Life is centered on how pure the food you eat is, and your self-esteem is based on how well you maintain this purist behavior. If you ate pure, you consider yourself a "good person." If you ate the wrong food, you consider yourself a "bad person."
The medical consequences associated with extreme orthorexia can include emaciation, malnutrition and even death by starvation due to severe dietary restrictions.
How Does Orthorexia Differ from Anorexia?
Orthorexia may seem like a sister form of anorexia. The physical consequences of both disorders present the following: extremely low body weight, the risk of developing osteoporosis, an absence of menses for women, low testosterone levels for men and the potential of death from starvation.
However, Bratman says there is a significant psychological difference between the two. Someone with anorexia does not see her/himself as emaciated, but as fat -- whereas someone with orthorexia is aware of their extreme thinness but is fine with it, as long as they feel "pure."
It's important to note that some anorexics may "hide" behind the orthorexic way of living to sustain their low body weight.
Treatment Essential for Return to Wellness
No matter which disorder is at the forefront, treatment is necessary to bring health back to the body. A medical doctor, a dietitian and a therapist experienced in treating all kinds of eating disorders -- including orthorexia -- can help those wanting to regain their health and balanced lifestyle.
The Orthorexia Self-Test
Bratman offers these 10 signs of orthorexia from his book, "Health Food Junkies -- Orthorexia Nervosa: Overcoming the Obsession with Healthful Eating." You could have orthorexia, or be on the way to developing it, if you:
1. Spend more than three hours a day thinking of food.
2. Plan your day's menu more than 24 hours ahead of time.
3. Take more pleasure from the "virtuous" aspect of your food than from actually eating it.
4. Find your quality of life decreasing as the "quality" of your food increases.
5. Are increasingly rigid and self-critical about your eating.
6. Base your self-esteem on eating "healthy" foods, and have a lower opinion of people who do not.
7. Eat "correct" foods to the avoidance of all those that you've always enjoyed.
8. Increasingly limit what you can eat, saying that you dine "correctly" only at home, spending less and less time with friends and family.
9. Feel guilt or self-loathing when you eat "incorrect" foods.
10. Derive a sense of self-control from eating "properly."
If you selected more than four of these signs, you may need to assess whether your behaviors and attitudes toward food are balanced. If all of the signs resonated with you, you are engulfed in this obsessive (and potentially fatal) form of eating. Seek help today!
Do you think orthorexia nervosa should be considered a disorder ... or a lifestyle choice?
|Maggie Baumann, MA, is a marriage family therapist intern working as a counselor in a private practice in Newport Beach, as well as at The Victorian in Newport Beach (a residential treatment facility providing care to women struggling with eating disorders, addictions and body image). Maggie has written for various publications and has appeared on national television promoting eating-disorder awareness and prevention. She also facilitates two eating-disorder support groups in Orange County -- one in Newport Beach and the other in Laguna Beach. You can reach Maggie by e-mail or visit her website at MaggieBaumann.com.|